Age and vision: features of vision in people at different ages

Age and vision: features of vision in people at different ages

Lucy is tired: the week at work turned out to be difficult. The only thing I wanted right now was to come home, sit on the sofa and be in silence for 10 minutes. And then play with your son and watch your favorite series. Looks like two new episodes have been released.

The last step remained before the goal – to go to the supermarket and buy groceries. The husband had already rushed to the pile of baskets, but Lucy stopped – her glasses were fogged up. I had to ask to wait.

The glasses, unfortunately, still did not become transparent. And Lucy forgot her napkin. In her heart she breathed out:

How I wish I didn’t wear glasses! You can safely wear a mask. In winter, you go to the store – and do not have to wait. Beauty-ah-ah-ah!

“You just have to be patient a little,” her husband reassured her. – After 40 years, vision improves, as I heard: many stop wearing glasses. When you turn 40, and you throw away your glasses, don’t worry.

– Yes, all this is not true! If there is myopia, it will not go anywhere, no matter how old you are.

The human body changes with age. Changes also affect vision: therefore, people in different years can see the world around them differently. Over time, problems may appear. Some pass on their own. For example, hypermetropia in children is a condition that is a variant of the norm. But some visual impairments need to be corrected.

In the article we will tell you what happens to vision in children, adolescents and adults. And about what to do to avoid problems.

Features of vision in children

In newborn children, the eyeball is still developing. Infants have farsightedness: they see objects more clearly at a distance of 40–50 cm. The gaze is wandering, eye movements are erratic. This disappears by two months: the eye muscles are strengthened, eye movements become more symmetrical and coordinated.

Approximately after the 2nd month of life, the ability to fix the gaze on objects appears: the baby sees the object, holds his gaze on it, and over time can find it with his eyes. Gradually, the connection of the visual analyzer with other analyzers is strengthened: auditory, speech. The child perceives the world holistically: he sees the toy, hears the music, understands that the sound comes from the toy.

During the first years of life, the visual centers in the cerebral cortex are improved, where information is processed . The maturation of the cortical sections ends by 7 years.

The lacrimal glands of an infant begin to fully function after about two months. It turns out that babies cry without tears.

The cornea in babies is more convex and voluminous than in adults. It gradually increases in area and changes curvature according to the growth of the eyeball.

Color perception also develops . Newborns most clearly perceive only black and white colors. They begin to actively distinguish other colors closer to 4–5 months, the accuracy of perception increases with age.

Later, binocular (spatial) vision is formed: two images from the right and left eyes are combined into one volumetric one. The combination of pictures occurs in the cerebral cortex .

A small child should be taken to an ophthalmologist at least twice a year. During the examination, the doctor will exclude congenital cataracts, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and other visual impairments.

Vision of preschoolers and schoolchildren: the appearance of disorders due to increasing load

From the age of 5-6, children begin to study intensively, learn to read and write: this is a load on the eyes. For schoolchildren, the workload increases many times.

Parents need to ensure that the child sits correctly at the table and does not slouch. An incorrect posture can lead to squeezing of the vessels in the cervical region and circulatory disorders in the vessels of the head, which can also negatively affect the blood supply to the eyeball.

It is necessary to choose the height of the table and chair according to height: the child should sit with a straight back. A chair with a curved back is better suited: it supports the natural curve of the spine, it is comfortable to sit on such a chair.

The computer monitor should be installed so that the eyes are at the level of the top of the screen. When the screen is lower or higher, the load on the neck and eyes increases – they get tired faster.

The student’s desk must be properly lit. A lamp is needed on the table, while the light should not fall on the monitor screen. We talked in detail about how to save your eyes when learning.

Even the vision of preschoolers and elementary school students can deteriorate due to improper use of gadgets.

Make sure that the child holds the phone at a distance of 40-45 cm from the eyes. Explain to your child that you need to rest. There are regulations on the time of use of devices.

Tablet and phone Laptop and PC
1‒2 grades 1 h 50 min 2 h
3‒4 grades 2 h 15 min 2 h 20 min
5‒9 grades 3 h 3 h
10‒11 grades 3 h 50 min 4 h

Schoolchildren and preschoolers need to undergo examinations by an ophthalmologist once a year. If the specialist finds problems, he will promptly select a method of correction.

Vision in adolescence: disorders due to gadgets and heavy workload

At about 11–13 years of age in girls and at 13–15 years of age in boys, hormonal changes begin, body proportions change. There is a rapid growth of the eyeball, which can cause axial myopia. This condition requires timely full correction and careful monitoring by a specialist.

Normally, by the age of 12–14, binocular vision should be fully developed, as in adults.

In adolescents, the load on the eyes is maximum. In high school, students are asked more: they have to read and write a lot. Even teenagers constantly use a computer and gadgets, often do not observe the work schedule and do not take breaks.

Teenagers also need to regularly visit an ophthalmologist for the timely detection of visual impairment. If the doctor detects myopia, he will suggest a correction: with the help of glasses or lenses.

In adolescence, it is better to use contact lenses to correct myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism – of course, if there are no contraindications. The lenses are invisible and can be worn while playing sports. They will relieve the discomfort that may occur when wearing glasses: the image quality in the lenses is higher, since they form a single optical system with the eye, do not narrow the field of view and allow the eyeball to make a full range of movements.

Here we add that with the help of the Bausch + Lomb FRIENDS Loyalty Program, lenses can be purchased cheaper. To participate in the program, register on the site, receive and accumulate points. You can spend them on free lens packs and rewards from partners.

Name of product Number of points to receive a promotional package
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Biotrue® ONEday lenses 90pk 1,250 points
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SoftLens® Daily _ Disposable lenses 30pk 480 points
SoftLens® Daily _ Disposable lenses 90pk 1,200 points
Bausch+Lomb ULTRA® 3pk 720 points
Bausch+Lomb ULTRA® 6pk 1,200 points
SofLens® Natural _ colors lenses 2pk 500 points
Biotrue® ONEday _ for Presbyopia lenses 30pk 600 points

Vision in adults: presbyopia, cataracts, glaucoma

After 40 years, changes in vision begin, associated with the general aging of the body. Presbyopia develops – age-related farsightedness due to changes in the elasticity of the lens.

The lens is a biconvex lens located between the iris and the vitreous body. One of its functions is the focusing of vision when looking far and near. In the first case, the lens acquires a flat shape, in the second – more convex.

With age, it loses elasticity, the capsule and core become denser. The lens cannot fully change shape: the point of clear vision gradually moves away from the eye. It becomes difficult to see objects at a short distance, it is difficult to read, sew, use the phone. Age presbyopia gradually progresses.

Myopia, which developed earlier, does not disappear: a person has to wear glasses with both “‒” and “+”.

Sometimes, with age, due to a violation of many physiological processes, various ophthalmic diseases can be added. The most common are:

● cataract – clouding of the lens;

● glaucoma – increased intraocular pressure.

Both of these conditions require regular monitoring by an ophthalmologist, the use of medications, and in some cases, surgical treatment may be indicated.

To minimize the risk of developing pathologies and maintain eye health for as long as possible, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, maintain eye hygiene and regularly visit an ophthalmologist. Only he will be able to identify possible problems in time and prescribe adequate treatment.

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