Glaucoma is an eye disease that affects the optic nerve. Pathology develops due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and is the main cause of irreversible blindness. In most cases, glaucoma develops in older people, but anyone can experience it if there is a genetic predisposition to it.
People with this diagnosis, who adhere to a glaucoma treatment plan, should be especially careful about eye health, avoid stress and follow measures to prevent bacterial and viral infections. In this article, we will talk in detail about all contraindications and explain what these restrictions are associated with.
Patients with glaucoma should remember that no method of glaucoma therapy provides a complete recovery, so it is necessary to strictly adhere to drug therapy, undergo scheduled examinations, and visit an ophthalmologist -glaucomatologist every 2-3 months.
What can not be done by patients with glaucoma?
1. Firstly, with glaucoma it is dangerous to overcool and overheat. Temperature fluctuations and their critical values are equally dangerous, they can cause ophthalmotonus (increased IOP). Any low temperatures cause all vessels in the body, including the eyes, to narrow, and this adversely affects the outflow of intraocular fluid. Too high temperatures also increase pressure. In other words: you should not stand at the hot stove for a long time, and it is advisable to avoid the bath, taking hot baths and sunbathing on hot days. In direct sunlight, you should always wear a hat;
2. Too much caffeine for glaucoma is a bad idea. It is better to stop drinking strong tea or coffee before 8 am and after 9 pm, at this time of the day eye pressure usually reaches its peak;
3. Do not drink too much liquid. If you drink a liter of water within an hour, IOP can rise by 4-8 units. It is best to try to drink no more than one and a half liters per day and limit yourself to 200 ml per dose;
4. Sleep on a low pillow. If the head is not at an angle, but horizontally or below the level of the spine, the circulation of intraocular fluid worsens. For sleep, it is necessary to choose such pillows so that the head and neck are above the level of the spine;
5. Dive and hold your breath for a long time, because in such conditions intracranial and intraocular pressure rises sharply;
6. Drink alcohol. Ethanol is able to expand and constrict blood vessels, cause tissue hypoxia – this adversely affects the optic nerve;
7. Ignore such a violation in the work of the gastrointestinal tract as constipation, because straining also contributes to an increase in IOP;
8. It is contraindicated to use eye drops or nasal sprays that dilate blood vessels (atropine, drops for the treatment of rhinitis). Be sure to consult about the use of certain drugs with your doctor and carefully read the instructions;
9. To be in conditions of insufficient lighting, darkness or twilight for a long time without first instilling anti- glaucoma drops prescribed by an ophthalmologist. Adjust the light sources at your workplace so that your eyes do not have to strain;
10. Wear sunglasses with lenses in cool shades (blue, gray). Try to give preference to green glasses, the eyes get tired less in them, they are not so prone to eyelid ticks and increased IOP;
11. Break the diet. Patients with glaucoma are suitable for a dairy-vegetable diet. The main enemies in this disease are salty, fried foods, meat, rich meat broths. Consider alternative (vegetarian) options for your usual meals.
Why is it so important to follow these recommendations and lead a healthy lifestyle?
The vitreous body of the eye is filled with contents that exert a certain pressure on the walls of the eye. This allows the eye to maintain its shape, and even normal IOP levels contribute to good blood circulation inside the eyeball and oxygen delivery.
If contraindications are not taken seriously, if ophthalmotonus occurs, glaucoma will progress and vision will continue to decline. Also, patients with glaucoma with elevated blood pressure may be concerned about:
- Pain in the temples;
- General deterioration of well-being;
- Fatigue and burst vessels on the whites of the eyes;
- blurred vision;
- The appearance of rainbow circles around light sources.
With glaucoma, you need to visit an ophthalmologist for a routine examination at least once every 2-3 months and monitor your health (even if there are no complaints). The fact is that many diseases contribute to increased intraocular pressure:
- Diabetes. Changes in blood sugar levels lead to problems with blood vessels – this directly affects blood pressure and can lead to the progression of retinopathy, glaucoma, neuropathy or retinal detachment;
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- Kidney failure, in which fluid is retained in the body;
When is it necessary to consult a specialist for glaucoma?
At home, it is impossible to determine the level of IOP, therefore, at the first signs of its increase, you need to contact an ophthalmologist and undergo an examination.
It is strictly contraindicated to try to reduce it with folk remedies or drugs without measuring pressure – this can be dangerous.
With ophthalmohypertension , it is very important to use special antihypertensive drops that your doctor has selected for you. This will reduce the risk of damage to the optic nerve, maintain pressure within normal limits, slow down the development of glaucoma and maintain visual acuity. It is much easier to follow preventive measures, limit the consumption of certain foods and alcohol than lie down on the operating table when medications are already powerless.