Myopia, or myopia, is an eye disease in which a person does not distinguish between objects located at a long distance, while clearly seeing them closely. With myopia, the image is located in the plane in front of the retina, therefore, it is perceived as fuzzy. This is due to a mismatch between the strength of the optical system of the eye and its length. Doctors distinguish between weak (up to 3.0 D (dioprius) inclusive), moderate (from 3.25 to 6.0 D) and high (more than 6 D) myopia. It can also be congenital and acquired, stationary and progressive. Today, there are many operational methods of treatment of myopia .
Laser vision correction
Laser vision correction is the most popular method today. Using a special laser, the doctor acts on the upper layer of the cornea, giving it the shape of a natural lens, with the parameters necessary for the patient. Using this method of treating myopia , a doctor can eliminate high myopia up to -15.0 D. This method is absolutely safe, since the depth of laser exposure is strictly limited.
Before the operation, the patient undergoes a full diagnostic study to determine the exact indications for treatment. The patient’s labor activity, his age (usually from 18-45 years) is taken into account. The operation takes place in one day on an outpatient basis. The only contraindications for surgery are pregnancy, breastfeeding and the patient’s age that is inappropriate.
Refractive lens replacement
A refractive lens replacement is also called a lensectomy. This method of treating myopia is suitable for a particularly high degree of illness, up to -20.0 D and is most often used when a person has lost the ability to clearly distinguish objects at different distances. With such indications, the optical power of the lens is too large, or vice versa, insufficient. During the operation, the doctor removes a natural clear crystalline lens from the eye, turning it into an emulsion using ultrasound, and then replaces it with an artificial – intraocular lens of the necessary optical power. A multidisciplinary ophthalmic surgical system is used to conduct the operation. The operation takes from 15 to 20 minutes.
Phakic lens implantation
Implantation of phakic lenses differs from the previous operation in that it is recommended when the person has not lost the ability to distinguish objects at a distinct distance. The advantage of lens implantation is that this method is suitable for patients with vision up to – 25 D. During the operation, the lens of the eye is left intact, and in the back and front camera the eyes behind the iris in front of the lens, through a 2.5 mm incision made previously, are implanted. special lens. After implantation, suturing and dressing are not required.
Radial keratotomy is an operation during which non-through radial incisions are made along the periphery of the cornea. The effect of the method is that in the process of scar healing, the cornea flattenes, its curvature changes – as a result, myopia is eliminated. This operational method used to be very widely used, but now it is rarely used, because it has several disadvantages compared to other methods: a long postoperative recovery, poor predictability of the result, the inability to perform an operation on both eyes at once, the likelihood of complications.
A method of treating myopia using keratoplasty, or in other words, corneal plasty, occurs due to a change in the shape of the cornea due to a graft transplant, which usually is a certain layer of the cornea of the donor. The transplant can be located on the anterior layers of the cornea, replace them or transplant into the thickness of the cornea.