Retinal dystrophy, which is also called degeneration, is uncommon in children. A characteristic feature of retinal dystrophy is that the risk of its occurrence greatly increases with growing up, and then with aging of a person. Elderly people are especially susceptible to retinal degeneration.
Retinal pigmentary dystrophy is classified as a peripheral degeneration and is a genetically determined disease of an irreversible nature. If inheritance occurs according to a dominant pattern, then retinal dystrophy begins to develop earlier, sometimes even in childhood. This retinal degeneration progresses very quickly. If inheritance follows a recessive pattern, then the disease can begin to develop at the age of 45-50 years and later. Usually, at the onset of the disease, patients come to an ophthalmologist with complaints of poor vision in the dark. This phenomenon is called night blindness. In the process of examining such patients, the border of the narrowing of the field of view is established, a significant decrease in the habituation of the eyes to light, the anterior part of the eyeball is not affected by pathology. In the area of the fundus and in the area of the periphery of vision, foci of the disease are observed that outwardly resemble foreign objects. With the growing up or aging of a person, the number of these “objects” becomes larger, and the sizes also become larger. They often merge and approach the middle of the fundus. At the same time, vision continues to decrease at the periphery of the eye, and the ability of the eyes to get used to darkness is reduced. Further, atrophy of the optic nerve and its yellowing occurs. The blood vessels in the retina undergo sclerization and begin to narrow. In addition to all of the above, the development of glaucoma of the eye, cataracts and retinal detachment can be observed.
Treatment of retinal dystrophy of this type consists in carrying out active antidystrophic , metabolic and vasodilating therapeutic therapy. These measures are taken even though they are considered ineffective for the treatment of retinal dystrophy.
The schemes and methods for the treatment of retinal dystrophy of a dotted white character are similar to the principles of treatment of retinal dystrophy of the type considered.
Central retinal dystrophy can develop at any age and is differentiated into childhood, adolescent and senile types of the disease.
Children’s and adolescent varieties of retinal and eyeball vascular dystrophy are inherited in a dominant or recessive pattern. As a rule, such retinal dystrophies are bilateral in nature and are characterized by impaired color perception, core scotoma, slowly developing visual impairment up to absolute blindness. Children with retinal dystrophy, as a concomitant disease, are often characterized by twitching of the eyeball and strabismus.
From time to time there is information about medications that normalize vision for all types of retinal dystrophies of a genetic nature, but, as a rule, the first joy quickly fades away, since the process is irreversible and there is practically no way to cure it. Now the most effective way to treat retinal dystrophy are Pankov glasses.
A particularly urgent problem is retinal macular degeneration. It is this disease that leads to deterioration of vision, can cause blindness. I must say that over time, this disease is increasingly common among young people.
The use of the method of fluorescence angiography has established that in the development of macular degeneration, an important function is performed by the process of fluid penetration in the affected areas of the eye, which makes it possible to use laser coagulation for the treatment of retinal degeneration.