In order to preserve visual acuity until old age, it is necessary not only to consult a doctor when the first signs of trouble appear, but also to prevent the development of various diseases if possible.
Hygiene of view when working at a computer
Currently, computers are used everywhere, so most people spend in front of the monitor most of the day. Even housewives who do not need to take care of their daily bread, are not averse to sit on the Internet, and children and adolescents are addicted to “wandering kami” and “shooters”. Unfortunately, even modern screens can negatively affect visual acuity: when looking at rapidly changing bright pictures and contrasting inscriptions, the muscles of the eyes become tired, and the retina gets an increased load, which causes the development of all kinds of pathologies.
Any monitor (like a TV) in the course of its work flickers with a certain frequency. At the same time, the contrast and clarity of the image are significantly different from the actual objects in question, since information is transmitted by projecting individual points on the screen. Older monitors have an additional negative effect on the eyes, since they have a glass screen that reflects illumination in the form of glare.
Of great importance is also the location of the body of a person conducting a computer most of the day. A stoop and too small a distance from the monitor to the eyes can not only adversely affect visual acuity, but also cause the development of somatic diseases.
Eye strain may occur when working simultaneously with the text on the screen and the “paper” original. Constant “switching” of the gaze from the white sheet to the monitor screen leads to a sharp overstrain of the muscles of the eyeball, since they simply do not have time to adapt to constantly changing conditions. As a result, muscle spasms occur, sometimes causing accommodation disturbances and as a decrease in visual acuity.
In order to prevent the development of myopia and other eye diseases, one should limit the time spent in front of the monitor and take regular breaks (by the way, this is an excellent reason to perform hygienic gymnastics).
In addition, it is desirable to get a modern monitor, the flickering of which is almost imperceptible. It is also necessary to properly equip the workplace. The distance from the eyes to the screen should be about 60 cm. A look at this is best directed to the center of the screen, then overwork of the eye muscles will not come immediately.
To avoid overstretching skeletal muscles and prevent impaired posture, it is advisable to choose a comfortable chair or chair. If possible, it is best to purchase a special computer chair with an adjustable backrest and changing the height of the seat. Of course, you should immediately adjust these parameters in accordance with their needs.
During long-term work at the computer, it is necessary to take 10-15-minute breaks every hour. You can close your eyes, tilt your head back and sit quietly for 2-3 minutes. In addition, after consulting with an ophthalmologist, you can purchase special glasses with perforations or polarized glasses.
That the children were not short-sighted
Myopia is currently one of the most common options for visual impairment. The cause of myopia can be hereditary predisposition, some somatic diseases, severe allergies, spasm of the eye muscles and congenital anomalies.
For example, with genetically determined metabolic disorders, the blood supply to the tissues of the eyeballs will slow down, and the sclera will soften. And with the increase in load (during school), the shell of the eyeball, without getting good nutrition, will stretch, which will negatively affect refraction.
Unfortunately, even the absence of the risk factors listed above cannot guarantee “protection” against myopia. With the wrong day regimen, low light, too long work at the computer or an uncomfortable desk, the danger of reducing visual acuity remains relevant. In order to prevent undesirable consequences, it is necessary first of all to pay attention to the regime of the day of the baby.
Children of preschool and primary school age should not be watching TV for a long time. Many mothers use the attractiveness of the “miracle box” so that the little ones do not interfere with their household chores or rest. It would seem, what harm can a 1.5-hour viewing of cartoons cause to the eyes of a child? However, such a load can trigger the development of myopia. Watching TV is possible only on weekends, taking into account a reasonable time limit. Children should not watch TV after returning from school and preparing homework: the eyes must rest.
If a child likes computer games, the duration of such entertainment should be limited to 20-30 minutes a day. In cases where a computer is needed for preparing homework (writing essays, searching information on the Internet, etc.), you can increase the duration of this time period to 1.5 hours, with 2-3 interruptions of 10 minutes. During the rest, the baby can sit quietly with his eyes closed or do gymnastics.
In order to reduce the load on the retina, you should pay attention to the arrangement of the “school corner”. When reading or writing, the distance from the child’s eyes to the notebook or book should be about 30 cm. Parents should be patient and explain to the child what this precaution should be observed (for example, tell people who have “sore eyes” to wear points, they can not play sports, etc.). It may be for some time that the child will have to make sure that he does not slouch over the textbook, but this pose will soon become habitual for the baby.
Preparation of lessons should also not cause eye fatigue. Even with a large number of homework, you should take a short break every 30 minutes. The best rest will be a change of classes: the child can, for example, walk around the room, get some fresh air on the balcony or near the open window, do gymnastics, help the mother to wash the dishes.
It is also desirable to engage in strengthening the body. For example, hardening has a beneficial effect on all organs and tissues, improving blood circulation and increasing immunity. Sports (in the absence of contraindications) also have a positive effect on the health of the child. Even if the doctor for some reason advises to limit physical activity, the kid can take part in outdoor games, do therapeutic and prophylactic gymnastics or swim.
In addition, parents should monitor the diversity of its diet. Products included in the daily menu should contain the amount of fat, carbohydrates and proteins a child needs. Dairy products (whole milk, cottage cheese, ryazhenka, kefir, yogurt), river and sea fish, lean beef, fresh cabbage, greens, various berries, fruits and natural juices are very useful for vision. You can also, on doctor’s prescription, give your baby multivitamins with trace elements, calcium and phosphorus preparations.
Sometimes the development of myopia in young children is the result of excessive diligence of parents. Currently, there are many fashionable techniques that teach children to read literally from the first days of their lives. There is nothing good in such activities. The premature “acceleration” of the development of the intellect often leads to chronic fatigue and the appearance of apathy in the child (not understanding what the parents want from him, he is locked in himself), and his organs of vision are not yet adapted to increased loads.
Children, who started learning to read very early, most often suffer from myopia. The fact is that the development of the ciliary muscle, which changes the outlines of the lens, ends only by 6-7 years of life of the baby. That is why young children do not want to watch TV, play computer games and read books with small print. And do not worry about the fact that the neighbor child is already reading out loud – everything has its time. In younger preschool age, it is better to pay more attention to developmental games and activities that are not related to the development of the alphabet. In order to promptly diagnose eye diseases and, if necessary, to begin treatment as soon as possible, the child should be shown to the ophthalmologist every year. Early detection of the first symptoms of trouble will help maintain visual acuity and prevent the development of complications.
For a long time it is known that certain color combinations can cause various diseases and, conversely, relieve discomfort. Currently, chromotherapy (color therapy) is one of the popular branches of alternative medicine. Properly selected shades will help not only to restore visual acuity, but also to eliminate the manifestations of various eye diseases. A more detailed advice on chromotherapy can be given by a specialist in accordance with the individual characteristics of the patient, only general properties will be considered here.
The red color and some of its shades stimulate the activity of the cardiovascular system, prevent arrhythmia, normalize blood pressure, increase the level of immunity and have a beneficial effect on visual acuity.
Orange color helps to get rid of bronchitis and other diseases of the respiratory system, relieves asthma, anemia, diabetes and some other ailments. In ophthalmology, its shades are used as an additional therapeutic agent in the treatment of uncomplicated myopia, physiological atrophy of the optic nerve and degenerative pathologies of the retina. It should be remembered that an excess of red and orange tones in the interior contributes to the constant excitation of the nervous system.
Yellow color has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and stimulates the pancreas and liver, as well as helps to eliminate toxic metabolic products from the body. Its shades are used in the treatment of skin diseases (eczema, dermatitis), diabetes, gastritis of various etiologies and intestinal atony. Ophthalmologists recommend treating objects of yellow color with amblyopia, weakness of the muscles of the eyeballs, strabismus, atrophic changes in the optic nerve and retinal dystrophy.
Green color normalizes the cardiovascular system, lowers blood pressure, relieves stress, helps to restore a good night’s sleep, eliminates fatigue symptoms and prevents exacerbation of bronchial asthma. In ophthalmology, its shades are used to treat glaucoma, uncomplicated myopia and degenerative changes in the retina. The appropriate color scheme of the interior helps to remove the constant emotional stress and relax after a hard day’s work.
Blue color reduces appetite, contributes to the natural reduction of overweight, normalizes the heart, improves the elasticity of blood vessels and stabilizes blood pressure. Shades of blue are effective in treating cataracts and glaucoma.
Blue is used as an additional therapeutic agent in the treatment of cataracts, glaucoma and cataracts, as well as some diseases of an inflammatory nature. In addition, its shades have a beneficial effect on the condition of patients suffering from disorders of the thyroid gland, diseases of the throat, gastrointestinal disorders or migraines.
Purple color helps to cope with the manifestations of glaucoma and cataracts, and also improves visual acuity with mild myopia. Its shades are also used in diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, rheumatism, hepatitis and cholecystitis.
As mentioned above, the presence in the diet of sufficient amounts of vitamins is an excellent prophylactic against myopia and some other visual impairments. Together with food, a sufficient amount of useful biological active substances must be supplied to our body. In particular, vitamins A, groups B and C are very useful for eye health.
Vitamin A is mentioned in the medical literature under the name “retinol”. From a chemical point of view, it is a fat-soluble derivative of retinoic acid. Getting into the body with food, it normalizes the growth and reproduction of cells in all organs and tissues, improves immunity, contributes to the normal development and functioning of the organs of vision. In addition, it is part of the visual pigment of rhodopsin contained in rod-shaped cells of the retina, and iodopsin, which is in the cone cells.
Vitamin A entering the body gradually accumulates, forming the so-called reserve fund. If the daily diet is quite diverse, then this fund is constantly replenished, and the accidental deficiency of this vitamin does not cause the development of beriberi. With a lack of retinol, color perception is first disturbed, then “night blindness” occurs (a significant reduction in visual acuity at night). The progression of beriberi leads to the development of diseases of the retina and optic nerve.
In order to prevent undesirable effects, one should daily include in the diet foods that contain a sufficient amount of vitamin A. There are almost no retinol in plant foods, but it is contained in egg yolk, natural butter, pork liver and fish oil. Vegetarians as an alternative can choose carrots, pumpkin, spinach, sorrel, fresh berries and fruits, as well as vegetables containing the beneficial chemical compound carotene: during metabolism, vitamin A is formed from it.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is also important for maintaining visual acuity. It belongs to the category of water-soluble and participates in most of the basic chemical reactions occurring in the body, and also normalizes the processes of recovery and oxidation, stimulates tissue regeneration after mechanical damage, increases stress resistance, eliminates overwork and stabilizes the immune system. Ascorbic acid is not synthesized in cells and tissues, therefore, a sufficient amount of vitamin C must be present in the daily consumed foods.
This useful vitamin also “protects” the lens of the eye from the pathogenic effects of free radicals, reducing the likelihood of developing cataracts.
The recommended amount of daily taken ascorbic acid is 500 mg. This vitamin is found in many products of plant origin, not subjected to heat treatment. When heated, ascorbic acid is destroyed, so it is advisable to use vegetables in the form of salads and snacks.
Vitamin C deficiency usually manifests itself in the following symptoms: unreasonable fatigue, weakness, multiple minor hemorrhages, a characteristic gum disease, and a marked decrease in visual acuity.
Group B includes several vitamins that have a beneficial effect on various functions of the body (including the visual one). In the literature, these beneficial substances are sometimes referred to as “the vitamins of the nervous system,” since they ensure the full functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a water-soluble substance that is involved in a variety of metabolic processes. It is not synthesized in the body, so it is necessary to ensure its regular intake with food. Thiamine is found in legumes, nuts, unbleached cereals, wheat flour, yeast, etc. Unlike vitamin C, it is not destroyed by heat treatment, so the variety of diet becomes almost unlimited. In some cases, the doctor may recommend the use of vitamin B1 in the form of intramuscular injections.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a water-soluble chemical compound that normalizes redox processes. It is also part of the so-called visual purple – a special pigment that protects the retina from excessive ultraviolet radiation and protects the cone cells from sunburn. This useful vitamin is found in sunflower oil, seeds, most animal products, sour milk, eggs and green vegetables. With a lack of vitamin B2, visual acuity decreases markedly, characteristic changes in the upper layer of the skin develop and the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is disturbed, and mental abnormalities may appear.
Vitamin VZ is also known under the names “nicotinic acid” and “vitamin PP”. This chemical compound is soluble in water and participates in almost all redox reactions occurring in the body. Niacin provides full growth and cell division of all tissues and organs, normalizes lipid metabolism, reduces cholesterol in the blood and prevents the first signs of atherosclerosis. Nicotinic acid, unlike vitamin A, is not formed as a result of a metabolism, therefore its regular intake with food is necessary. It is found in legumes and other grains, as well as in poultry meat, beef, red fish and potatoes. During heat treatment, vitamin E3 is almost not destroyed.
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is another compound that is easily soluble in water. It enters the body with products of animal and vegetable origin. In addition, pyridoxine is formed in intestinal cells due to the beneficial activity of the natural microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. That is why a lack of vitamin B6 is often observed after the treatment of severe infections with complex antibiotics or long-term antimicrobial therapy. Pyridoxine is resistant to heat, but quickly decomposes in bright light. The lack of this vitamin is extremely rare.
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) is involved in lipid metabolism, provides a breakdown of plant and animal fats into easily digestible components, normalizes the synthesis of nucleic acids in the body, stabilizes metabolism, stimulates blood formation and increases blood clotting. In small quantities, it is formed as a result of the activity of saprophyte microbes that live in the intestines, and also comes with food. Vitamin B12 is found mainly in beef, beef offal, pork, fish (especially herring and cod), egg yolk and fatty dairy products. With a lack of cyanocobalamin, there are unreasonable fatigue, irritability, appetite disturbances, characteristic pathological changes in the tongue surface, a decrease in the acidity of the gastric juice and a slowing of intestinal motility, and in severe cases there are convulsions and visual acuity decreases.
Vitamin E (tocopherol acetate) is a fat-soluble chemical compound that is a natural antioxidant. It participates in the biosynthesis of proteins essential for the body, improves the supply of oxygen to tissues and organs, stimulates active cell division and stabilizes most vital functions. Vitamin E is found in unrefined vegetable oil and wheat germ. The deficiency of this compound has a negative effect on the state of the whole organism, including a decrease in visual acuity.
Saturation of the body with vitamins is an important condition for maintaining health and ensuring normal visual acuity. However, a properly formulated diet does not guarantee success. There are certain features of the preparation of various dishes that allow you to save the vitamins present in the products and substances useful for the body. The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the daily diet also matters.
In order to eliminate excessive stress on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, one should, as far as possible, limit the consumption of meat, and also not mix protein and carbohydrate meals during one meal. But to give up meat delicacies is not at all necessary: it is enough to use them only once a day, and not in the morning, at lunch and in the evening. Otherwise, the liver will work with increased activity, which will adversely affect the metabolism.
It is desirable to limit the use of salt and sugar: add salt only in the process of cooking food, not dosalivaya ready-made meals, drink unsweetened tea, “biting” it with cookies or sweets.
If possible, refined foods should be excluded from the diet: vegetable oil, white sugar, “energy” semi-finished products, fast food, etc. These foods contain a lot of easily digestible carbohydrates, which are quickly deposited in the form of fat, leading to obesity, while the vitamins and substances useful for the body are practically absent. Of course, sometimes you can treat yourself to a hamburger or french fries, but such food should not become a habit.
The most useful is natural food, which is subjected to a slight heat treatment. Regardless of the season, it is desirable to include in the daily diet more vegetables and fruits, as well as whole milk, dairy products without flavors and preservatives, kernels of nuts and natural honey. In the first and second dishes after cooking, you can add fresh chopped greens.
Cereal cereals and side dishes are best steamed or undercooked, leaving to “reach” in a warm place. White bread made from top-quality flour cannot be called useful, as often the flour used to bake it is subjected to chemical bleaching, and numerous baking powder improves the taste, but negates the energy value of the finished product. The best alternatives are cereal bread and pastries with the addition of bran and rye flour.
In order for the body to “wake up” faster and start active activities, it is best to start the day with fresh fruit: while waiting for the readiness of breakfast, to eat an apple or pear. You can also drink 0.5 cups of freshly squeezed orange juice. Muesli filled with milk or kefir will be very useful. And it is better to leave porridge for dinner or lunch.
During the day, you can eat fresh vegetable salad with whole grain bread, a few slices of hard cheese, the first and second courses, prepared without using refined butter with minimal heat treatment.
For dinner, fit meat or fish dishes, as well as eggs with vegetable garnish.
It is undesirable to use spicy seasonings and drink any food with plenty of liquid, because the gastric juice, diluted in this way, loses its chemical activity.
Tea and coffee are the most popular drinks, but is it great?
If possible, their consumption should be reduced to a minimum (especially coffee), and tea brew loose and prefer green and white varieties to black.
Eat regularly. For some people, the work schedule is such that one day they “snack” several times, while the other does not have enough time even for lunch. This adversely affects the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. In this regard, it is desirable to take food at certain hours so that the stomach has time to prepare for its processing.
Watching TV and movies
In order that visual acuity does not decrease with age or under the influence of external negative factors, attention should be paid to the rules of watching movies and TV shows.
Evening in front of the TV – a traditional pastime for many people who want to escape and relax after a hard day’s work. But will their eyes be able to relax (especially if the work was closely connected with a computer or the small print of reference books)? In order not to harm your own health and at the same time to enjoy the pleasure of watching a new film, you need to know about simple precautions.
As you know, when viewing objects, the eyes are in continuous motion. Looking at the moving images, the eyeballs receive a significant load. To evaluate it objectively, you should first pay attention to your own position. How do we sit in front of the TV? Conveniently located in a comfortable chair at a sufficient distance from the screen, crouching on the floor, stretching out on the couch …
Correct body position is such that the head forms a straight line with the spine, otherwise the skeletal muscles become overworked and begin to ache after a while. Also important is the distance to the screen. Few people pay attention to this, especially in a small-sized apartment, where the lack of space automatically dictates the rules for arranging furniture. But too long a distance causes an overstretch of the eye muscles, especially with low visual acuity: a person has to peer at the screen, squint, mow his eyes, and if it is too small, this gradually leads to the development of myopia or disturbances in the accommodative process.
In no case should not allow young children and students to watch TV for a long time. It is especially harmful to include it when the kid does homework. Our brain can fully concentrate only on one lesson, so any distraction will distract the child from homework. In addition, he will constantly look from the textbook to the screen, and his eyes will inevitably be overloaded with work.
The time factor is important. If visiting a cinema is limited by the duration of the film, then you can spend most of the day in front of the TV. At the same time, various visual impairments inevitably develop, and most often, myopia.
In addition to physical overload, the eyes of TV lovers suffer from a chronic lack of fresh air. It is no secret that ventilation in old houses often turns out to be ineffective, and many people simply forget about airing, so on weekends, during continuous viewing of TV programs, all organs of our body do not receive enough oxygen. Among the consequences of such a “fasting” one of the first places is reduced visual acuity.
In order to prevent undesirable consequences, it is necessary to limit the time of watching a TV with a standard movie (about 1.5 hours), allow children to watch TV only on weekends, for 20-30 minutes, and also not forget about regular gymnastics for eyes, various ways of relaxation and switch attention.
Watching movies is less harmful to the eyes, because flickering of movie frames on a large screen stimulates the retina to a greater extent than changing the image on the screen or matrix of a TV. In addition, climate control is installed in modern cinemas, which ensures an optimum temperature in the room and a constant supply of conditioned air.
To avoid unpleasant consequences, when visiting the cinema should take place in accordance with individual needs: with myopia better get closer to the screen, and with long-sightedness – move away. If the doctor has prescribed a constant wearing of glasses or contact lenses, do not remove them. It is desirable that the place was in the center of the auditorium, and not on the edge.
While watching a movie, it is undesirable to tilt your head – it should be in line with the spine.
It is advisable to monitor the uniformity of breathing and blink more often, as a result of this, the tissues of the eyeballs will be moistened evenly and receive enough oxygen.
During the break between the series of the film (or the monotonous lengthy scene), you can cover your eyes, do some simple relaxing exercises or slightly massage the eyelids.