Glaucoma is considered the main cause of blindness in modern ophthalmic practice. Loss of vision is associated with increasing atrophic phenomena in the optic nerve, as well as with a sharp increase in intraocular pressure.
Glaucoma often manifests itself not immediately, the initial signs remain hidden until the appearance of a sharp deterioration in visual acuity . The increasing discomfort in patients makes it necessary to conduct a quick but comprehensive diagnosis and begin emergency treatment.
Glaucoma begins to develop in violation of the outflow of a special nutrient fluid in the chambers of the eye. This moisturizing substance in normal condition accumulates in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eyeballs. At disturbance of drainage function and delay of removal of moisture the intraocular pressure starts to increase.
In the development of glaucoma, the onset of atrophic processes of the optic nerve and its significant deformation, which is manifested due to the large amount of fluid accumulated in the chambers of the eyeballs, is considered the main factor. Pressure on the optic nerve leads to a slowdown in the transmission of information and impulses to areas of the brain, there is an increasing loss of eye function.
It is believed that the appearance glaucoma associated with age-related changes in the human body. In part, this proposition is true, since the pathological process develops against the background of numerous background systemic diseases. But there have been cases of manifestations of increased intraocular pressure and loss of visual fields in infancy and adolescence.
Causes of Glaucoma
Currently, the main reasons that clearly lead to the development of glaucoma are not fully detected. But it is worth highlighting a whole group of causal factors that accelerate the appearance of unpleasant signs of an increase in intraocular pressure and progressive loss of visual function.Hereditary predisposition should be attributed to them, since there have been numerous cases of manifestation of pathology in close relatives. Considerable contribution is made by traumatic eye lesions, frequent surgical interventions, inflammatory processes in the visual apparatus. The connection with the launch of the pathological process and taking certain medications, such as glucocorticosteroids, is noted . The presence of significant overweight, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and various vascular pathologies, including arterial hypertension, are of great importance in the occurrence of the pathology discussed. Do not forget, and various types of refractive disorders, such as myopia or hyperopia, which accelerate and in every way contribute to the early appearance of signs of the disease.
Types of glaucoma
In modern ophthalmic practice, it is customary to distinguish two types of glaucoma: open-angle and closed-angle . The first is found in most cases and is associated with the gradual accumulation of intraocular fluid, as well as constant pressure on the optic nerve. The leading signs of this form of the disease are the opening of the iris-corneal angle and parallel violation of the drainage function.
The second type of glaucoma is considered more rare and is formed when the iris blocks the normal outflow of fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye. In most cases, this form is recorded in people with farsightedness over thirty years of age.
In addition, pigmentary, pseudoexfoliative , chronic, and primary forms of pathology are distinguished . Glaucoma can also occur in the form of an acute attack, which is characterized by a sharp rise in intraocular pressure and a significant deterioration in blood circulation in the tissues of the eyeballs. Such a case requires immediate therapeutic intervention.
Leading symptoms of glaucoma
Symptoms of glaucoma are distinguished by their brightness, secretiveness in the early stages of development, as well as pronounced intensity in the final pathological process. The symptoms vary according to the form of the pathology.
Are common the symptoms Glaucoma is expressed in the form of increasing discomfort in the eye area, which is manifested by pain, pain and redness, fog and ghosting, vision at night, and attachment of headaches are further noted.
The symptoms of glaucoma of the open-angle view include the gradual narrowing of the visual fields, sharp pain in the superciliary area, asymmetrical damage to both eyeballs. Progressive vision loss occurs concentrically , capturing all peripheral divisions. The angle-closure form of pathology is accompanied by severe pain on the affected side, a sharp decrease in vision and redness of the eyeball, and pupil dilation. Additionally, multicolored rings around the source of light and fog in front of their eyes can manifest themselves brightly.
Diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma
Glaucoma treatment should begin at the earliest possible stages of the course of the disease and should be carried out after a full diagnosis. Loss of vision can be prevented by paying more attention to the early signs of loss of visual fields and the slightest manifestations of discomfort.
Diagnostic measures are aimed at studying indicators of intraocular pressure and establishing the state of the eye chambers. The determination of pressure inside the eyeballs is possible by contact and contactless techniques. The first method involves the use of special tonometers with parallel use of local anesthesia. Non-contact pressure measurement is possible using airflow and its effect on the cornea. This method does not require anesthetic interventions and provides more accurate measurement results. Additionally, the visual fields are examined using perimetry methods, as well as the functional state of the cornea, optic nerve, retina, fundus and eye chambers with the help of specialized ophthalmic instruments.
Treatment of glaucoma involves the use of drops, which lower the intraocular pressure. These drugs improve the outflow of intraocular fluid and contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes. Fully justified the use of drugs that contribute to the normalization of blood circulation in the vessels of the visual apparatus. With the ineffectiveness of conservative methods or with the neglected nature of the course of the disease, surgical interventions are possible.
In the surgical treatment of glaucoma, a laser is widely used that can reduce the intensity of symptoms and prevent the loss of visual function.
Glaucoma Prevention Measures
Prevention Glaucoma includes frequent and complete control over the condition of the eyeballs, regular checks of visual acuity and visual fields, measurement of intraocular pressure. You should protect your eyes from traumatic and inflammatory effects, do not work in the dark, give up bad habits and avoid overwork.