Is a very thin membrane adjacent to the vitreous body of the eye from the inside and to the layer of the choroid – from the outside. The retina has a complex structure and consists of 10 microscopic layers. Cones and rods contained in one of the layers of the retina allow humans to distinguish colors and light levels. Diseases of the retina can be caused by a variety of reasons, and all of them strongly affect vision.
Causes of retinal damage
Usually, retinal diseases are associated with poor circulation in the eye. Retinal vessels can wriggle, thicken, narrow, or dilate, which prevents the retina from receiving enough nutrients. As a result, hemorrhages, inflammation, and nerve damage can occur. Sometimes dystrophy develops and cones and rods die in the retina. The most common causes of retinal damage can be:
– diseases that are not directly related to the eyes: blood and kidney diseases, hypertension, diabetes, meningitis, atherosclerosis, and so on;
– diseases of the eye itself, such as inflammation, myopia, degenerative processes, hyperopia;
– physical injuries to the head (brain and eyes);
– poisoning, surgery and stress can also manifest their harmful effects;
– genetic changes in the retina and birth trauma.
Retinal macular degeneration
Macular degeneration is a disease of the retina , in which its central part is damaged, which leads to a decrease in visual acuity and other visual functions, most often irreversible. Symptoms of macular degeneration are a slow deterioration in vision: curvature, clouding of objects, a decrease in the brightness of colors. Over time, a transparent spot (scotoma) appears in the center of the visual field. Most often, this disease is caused by age (over 50), heredity, hypertension and unhealthy diet, smoking.
Retinal tears and peripheral retinal degeneration
Symptoms such as tears, damage, thinning, retinal degeneration can ultimately lead to retinal detachment, often causing blindness. Retinal dystrophy usually occurs in people with myopia. The retina is stretched, blood circulation slows down, the retina looses and is more easily damaged. Other reasons can be infectious diseases, stress, great physical exertion on the eyes or the body, as well as environmental problems.
One of the most dangerous eye diseases is retinal detachment, in which there is a disruption in the supply of nutrients to the outer layers and the gradual death of photoreceptors. Most often, without timely surgical intervention, this disease causes blindness. Detachment can occur as a result of age-related changes: the vitreous body of the eye narrows, it separates from the retina, and if a rupture occurs and fluid gets under the retina, it will exfoliate. Injuries, myopia, dystrophy and previous cataracts can contribute to detachment.
The symptoms of this retinal disorder are shadows in the field of view, a “curtain” sensation in the eyes, blurred vision, blurred vision, and flashes of light.
Retinal inflammation – retinitis
Unilateral or bilateral inflammatory retinal disease. May be caused by infection (including AIDS and syphilis), toxins, or allergies. Depending on the location of the inflammation, the visual field and visual acuity may be impaired in humans. Most often it starts in a small area and then grows larger and can cause serious eye hazards. It is treated with medication.
Like any other, retinal tumors can be benign or not. They usually develop in the first years of a child’s life. There is a thickening of the retina, which, expanding, can lead to protrusion of the eyeball, a decrease in its mobility and loss of vision. Timely treatment of the tumor will help preserve vision.
Retinal vascular diseases
Most retinal diseases are caused by disorders of the vascular system. The cause is usually a violation of the patency of blood vessels, as well as their blockage. Anticoagulants are used to prevent blood clots. Problems with pathologies of the eye blood supply system are the most relevant in ophthalmology and most often can lead to irreversible changes in vision.