Going to the reception of an ophthalmologist, be prepared to spend half an hour or more. Surprisingly, such a small organ of vision is targeted at a huge arsenal of examinations and diagnostic procedures: from simple letter tables to obtain a layer-by-layer image retina and optic nerve head and a detailed study of the course of the vessels in the fundus. Most studies are conducted under strict indications. However, when going to an ophthalmologist’s appointment, be prepared to spend from half an hour to an hour or more, depending on the amount and complexity of the studies that are necessary for you, and on the workload of your doctor.
Definition of visual acuity and refraction
Visual acuity is determined for each eye separately. At the same time one of them is covered with a flap or palm. At a distance of 5 meters you will be shown various sizes of letters, numbers or signs that you will be asked to name. Visual acuity is characterized by signs of the smallest size that the eye can distinguish.
Next, you will be given a frame in which the doctor will put different lenses, offering you to choose which one is more clearly visible. Or in front of you install the device, called phoropter , in which the change of lenses is carried out automatically. Refraction is characterized by the strength of the lens, which provides the highest visual acuity for this eye, and is expressed in diopters. Positive lenses are required when farsightedness, negative – with myopia, cylindrical – with astigmatism.
Automatic refractometry and aberrometry
Autorefractometry and aberrometer designed to automatically detect the refraction. All that is required of you is to place the chin on the stand and fix the mark to be shown with the eye.
The automatic refractometer assesses in which position the light rays are focused on the retina, and measures the refractive power cornea.
Based on the analysis of the wavefront of the eye, an aberrometer determines even the inconspicuous optical imperfections of its media. This data is important when planning LASIK.
Study of visual fields
It is carried out with the help of the device – the perimeter, which is a hemispherical screen. You are asked to fix the mark with the eye being examined and, as soon as you notice with the lateral vision of the luminous points appearing in different parts of the screen, press the signal button or say “yes”, “see”. The field of view is characterized by a space in which the eye with a constantly fixed gaze determines visual stimuli. Characteristic visual field defects occur in eye diseases, for example, glaucoma, as well as lesions of the optic nerve and brain tumor or as a result of a stroke.
Intraocular pressure measurement
Contactless measurement is carried out using an automatic blood pressure monitor. You are asked to set the chin on the instrument stand and fix the lighted mark with a glance. The autotonometer blows air in the direction of your eye. Based on the cornea resistance to air flow, the device determines the level of intraocular pressure. The technique is absolutely painless, the device is not in contact with your eyes.
The contact method for measuring intraocular pressure is adopted in Russia as a standard. After the instillation of the “freezing” drops, the doctor touches your cornea with a weight with a colored area. The level of intraocular pressure is determined on paper by the diameter of the print of the unpainted area. This technique is also painless.
Since glaucoma is a disease associated with an increase in intraocular pressure, regular measurement of it is a necessary condition for maintaining the health of your eyes.
Test with “covering”
There are many diagnostic methods. strabismus. The simplest of them is a “ cover up ” test . The doctor asks you to fix the object at a distance and, alternately covering one of your eyes with your palm, observes the other: whether there will be an installation movement. If it happens in theNutri s diagnose exotropia, if the outward – convergent.
A slit lamp or biomicroscope allows viewing the structures of the eye under high magnification. You are asked to install the chin on the device stand. The doctor illuminates your eye with a slit lamp and, at high magnification, first examines the anterior part of the eye (eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, lens), and then with a strong lens examines the fundus (retina, optic nerve head and vessels). Biomicroscopy allows you to diagnose almost the entire spectrum of eye diseases.
Using an ophthalmoscope, the doctor directs a beam of light into your eye and examines the retina, optic nerve head and blood vessels through the pupil.
Often, for a more complete review, you are previously instilled in droplets that dilate the pupil. The effect develops in 15-30 minutes. During their operation, sometimes for several hours, you may have difficulty focusing on things close up. In addition, the eye’s sensitivity to light is increased, on the way home after the examination it is recommended to wear sunglasses.
Preparing for eye examination
Experts recommend to undergo a complete eye examination every 1-3 years. Regular checkups: how often?
Experts recommend to undergo a complete eye examination every 1-3 years, depending on age, the presence of risk factors and common diseases.
Especially important is the observation of an ophthalmologist in childhood. Improper formation of the visual apparatus affects not only academic achievement, but also the development of the personality of a small person.
Children without signs and risk factors for eye diseases should be examined by an ophthalmologist not later than 6 months from the day of birth, then by year, at 3 years of age, before going to school (at 5-7 years) and then every 2 years of school at the school.
Risk factors eye diseases in children include:
- complicated course of pregnancy and childbirth
- cases congenital glaucoma and cataracts, optic nerve atrophy, retinal dystrophy, myopia strabismus in family
If your child has at least one of the listed risk factors or wears glasses or contact lenses, then he needs annual or more frequent monitoring.
If you are between 18 and 60 years old, and you do not notice any visual impairment, signs of eye diseases, or risk factors, then it’s a good habit to visit an ophthalmologist once every 2 years.
The risk factors for eye diseases in adults include:
- medium and high myopia
- cases of glaucoma, myopia, retinal dystrophy in the family
- diabetes mellitus, hypertension, thyroid disease, systemic diseases
- medication that has undesirable effects on the organ of vision
- work associated with visual load or possible adverse effects on the organ of vision
- previous operations or eye injuries
If you have at least one of the listed risk factors or you are over 60 years old, or you are wearing glasses or contact lenses, then an annual eye examination is recommended.
These different experts: who to contact?
An ophthalmologist (optometrist) is a doctor who specializes in eye diseases. He not only writes prescriptions for glasses and contact lenses, but also diagnoses and treats eye diseases with medication or surgery.
Optometrist – a specialist in the selection of glasses and contact lenses, Wed dstv for the visually impaired, I can diagnose eye disease and prescribe medication or treatment is driving.
What to take with, going on an eye examination?
The policy of compulsory health insurance gives you the right to a free visit to a specialist in a public institution. A voluntary medical insurance policy may cover part of the cost if you prefer to contact a commercial institution.
Having found out the reason for your visit, the attentive doctor asks if you had such complaints before, where you were examined, how you were treated and what result, whether you wear glasses or contact lenses. Data from previous examinations, discharge prescriptions from eye hospitals, the latest prescriptions for glasses, contact lenses and eye drops will help you answer these questions.
The doctor will ask you if you have any chronic diseases or medications you are taking. Therefore, do not forget to take with you a medical card and a list of all drugs with dosages that you are prescribed.
It will be more convenient for you to compile a list of questions that you would like to discuss with your doctor. If you are set up for laser surgery or contact lens selection, notify your doctor before starting the examination.