Did you know that ray-finned fish’s vision recovers within a few weeks after eye damage? If our eyes also had such miraculous properties, we would not have to worry about sharp corners or sparks from welding. But in the course of evolution, man has lost the ability to regenerate. Therefore, serious eye injuries sometimes end in blindness. The outcome is determined by timely medical assistance in case of eye injury.
How eyes are usually injured
When they talk about eye injury, they most often mean a violation of the integrity of the cornea, the upper transparent shell of the eyeball, under the influence of external factors. These include:
- getting into the eye of a foreign object;
- blow to the eye;
- burn: chemical, sun and flame.
a blow from a champagne cork, explosion of a firecracker – a very serious and, unfortunately, a typical New Year’s injury
In 90% of cases, patients deal with micro-injuries and eye injuries with blunt objects, in 8% – with burns, 2% – these are serious penetrating eye injuries.
Symptoms of an eye injury
Not everyone will immediately suspect corneal damage, mistaking it for a speck in the eye. As a rule, with strong blinking, tears wash away small debris. But if that trick doesn’t work, then it’s worth worrying.
In addition to discomfort, look for other symptoms of injury:
- a feeling of “sand” in the eyes;
- high sensitivity to light;
- pain in the eyes, in rare cases – headache;
- uncontrolled contractions of the circular muscles of the eyelids in response to painful sensations;
- redness of the eyes and eyelids;
- visible defects of the cornea.
When these symptoms appear, you can not hesitate to visit a doctor.
First aid for eye injury
The basic rule when providing first aid is not to harm even more. What is forbidden to do in case of an eye injury:
- try to pull out a foreign object from the eye yourself;
- rub your eyes;
- rinse both eyes at the same time in case of chemical burns: this is how a poisonous solution gets into a healthy eye;
- try to “neutralize” the action of the acid with alkali (and vice versa);
- use cotton wool, as its fibers injure the cornea even more.
How to help someone with an injured eye
First of all, you need to provide assistance only with clean hands so as not to infect an infection. It is important to calm the person down and promptly deliver him to the eye trauma center of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Ophthalmological Hospital, which provides assistance to people with eye injuries around the clock. Address: Krasnoyarsk, st. Nikitina 1 V, phone 8 (391) 228-07-14
In case of eyelid injury, you should:
- treat the eyelids with clean water;
- then close the wound with a sterile gauze bandage; in case of severe bleeding, it is advisable to use a hemostatic sponge;
- apply cold to relieve pain and prevent swelling.
When a speck hits:
- try to blink or wash the speck with water; it is impossible to remove the dirt with a handkerchief and even more so with sharp objects;
- drip antibacterial drops to prevent infection.
If a speck remains in the eye, stop trying to remove it yourself and take the victim to an ophthalmologist.
With a chemical burn:
- rinse your eyes with running water at room temperature in turn, tilting your head in the direction of the injured eye; cleansing time for one eye – at least 20 minutes;
- if quicklime gets into the eye, first completely remove all the crystals of the powder with a dry gauze cloth or bandage, and then rinse with water, otherwise a severe burn will occur.
- then you need to deliver the patient to the emergency room.
In case of a burn of the eyelids with a flame:
- remove impurities and treat the skin with alcohol, without affecting the mucous membrane and cornea;
- gently, without pressure, apply ice wrapped in a cloth or bag;
- apply (if any) to damaged skin and behind the eyelid with antibacterial ointment.
After all the manipulations, the person needs to be taken to the hospital.
In case of ultraviolet burn:
- darken the room so that the light does not irritate the eyes;
- place an antibacterial ointment behind the eyelid;
- take a pain reliever;
- if the pain does not subside within a few hours, go to the emergency room.
How is eye injury treated?
Treatment is selected based on the type and degree of eye damage. In mild cases, drug therapy is necessary, which includes antibacterial drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, pain relievers and hormonal eye drops. With moderate and severe burns, the patient is hospitalized, with serious wounds, an operation is performed. Treatment after an eye injury is to use drops recommended by your doctor.
Consequences of eye injury
The consequences of damage depend on its degree and the quality of care provided. Doctors treat wounds and carry out all the necessary manipulations, so if you go to the emergency room quickly, there will be fewer complications. Undesirable consequences are associated with the ingress of infection into the bloodstream or with even greater injury as a result of rash actions.
If a person does not receive timely medical care, scars remain, soft tissues around the eye are deformed, visual acuity decreases, up to its complete loss.
If the infection enters the bloodstream, sepsis develops – an inflammation that is dangerous for the whole body. The accumulating pus affects the internal structures of the eye, sometimes reaches the brain, and causes inflammatory processes in the body.
Prevention of eye injuries
90% of eye injuries can be easily prevented by following the safety rules at work and when working with hazardous substances. Protective goggles and masks in most cases will save the eye from the ingress of drops of solution or foreign objects: shavings, sparks from welding or lawn grass.
Sunglasses with the appropriate protection factor protect your eyes from UV burns.