Astigmatism is a visual impairment in which the rays of light fall not at one point on the retina, as it does in a healthy eye, but are scattered at several points. As a result, a person sees a blurred and unclear image of objects.
There is myopic, hypermetropic and mixed astigmatism. These species differ in exactly where the light rays go (in front of the retina, behind the retina, or a combination of these options).
You can also distinguish 3 degrees of astigmatism:
- weak – up to 2 diopters;
- medium – up to 3 diopters;
- high – 4+ diopters.
Until recently, astigmatism was considered to be a disease rather complicated for correcting vision. However, modern methods of laser treatment of astigmatism make it possible to achieve the restoration of human vision in the shortest possible time.
To date, there are several treatments for astigmatism:
- Conservative methods. The correction of the negative effect of astigmatism here occurs due to the selection of special (“difficult”) glasses or contact lenses. Conservative treatments for astigmatism usually stop the progression of the disease for a while. However, it is necessary to regularly undergo examination by an ophthalmologist and, if necessary, select new glasses or a new type of lens. In addition, when wearing glasses and lenses for astigmatism, there are often side effects such as dizziness and pain in the eyes.
- Laser Correction. This is a more advanced method of treatment of astigmatism, which allows you to completely get rid of the disease. With the help of an excimer laser, the cornea of the eye is shaped in such a way that the rays of light fall into the central part of the retina, forming a clear image. The usual operation lasts no more than 10-15 minutes, and the direct effect of the laser beam on the eye is no more than 40 seconds. Vision begins to recover within a few hours after surgery. On the same day, the patient can already return home, following a doctor’s prescription within a month. After that, all restrictions are removed.
IMPORTANT! Do not leave astigmatism without treatment. If not treated, the progression of the disease can lead to such consequences as strabismus and sharp deterioration of vision. Therefore, it is necessary to contact an ophthalmologist at least once a year to prevent illness. And at least 2 times a year with already identified eye diseases. The sooner you consult a doctor, the more effective the treatment that he will prescribe.
Myopia with confidence can be called the scourge of modern society. This is one of the most common diseases in the world. Inferior in mass myopia only to viral infections. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, about 800 million people have some degree of myopia.
Myopia (or myopia) arises from the fact that a ray of light is incorrectly refracted through the cornea of the eye and lens, focusing not on the center of the retina, as it should be with healthy vision, but in front of the retina.
There are several degrees of myopia:
- Low – up to 3 diopters;
- Average – from 3 to 6 diopters;
- High – more than 6 diopters.
SYMPTOMS OF MYOPIA:
When myopia deteriorates vision into the distance. Subjects become blurred and fuzzy. At the same time, a person can see near as well as before. The higher the degree of myopia, the smaller the area becomes comfortable clear vision in humans.
TREATMENT OF MYOPIA:
The development of modern ophthalmosurgery today allows with the highest accuracy to correct vision with myopia of almost any size. Different types of operations can be used for vision correction:
- Laser vision correction using the LASIK method. This is the most popular and safest way for the patient to restore vision. Correction occurs due to the fact that with the help of a point effect of laser beams, the cornea of the eye is given the correct shape, in which the light rays are refracted in such a way that they fall into the center of the retina of the eye. At the same time, thanks to modern equipment, the laser flow is directed so that the effect on the eye remains minimal. VAS correction is the most universal treatment for myopia.
- Surgical treatment of myopia. In some cases, when there are contraindications for laser vision correction, vision can be restored surgically. To do this, a specially selected high-tech lens (IOL) is placed in front of the lens of the eye, thanks to which, due to the lens, it is possible to achieve the correct refraction of the light beam to the retina of the eye.
- Scleroplasty. Unlike the two previous ones, this method is not aimed at complete restoration of vision, but at stopping progressive myopia. With this method of treating myopia, a special substance is introduced into the walls of the eye, which strengthens the outer shell of the eye and prevents its shape from changing. Thus, stopping the progressive decline in vision.
The required method of treatment of myopia for you can pick up our ophthalmosurgeon after you pass a diagnostic eye examination. And remember, the sooner you see a doctor if your vision deteriorates, the easier it will be to cure myopia and return you good vision again.
Farsightedness (or hypermetropia) is an eye disease in which a beam of light is focused behind the retinal wall. At the same time, a blurred and fuzzy image of objects, especially in the vicinity, is formed on the retina.
There are several degrees of hyperopia:
- Low – up to 2 diopters. Usually, with a low degree of hyperopia, good vision is maintained. And changes in vision in the vicinity remain subtle. The main symptoms of this stage of the disease are: pain in the eyes and fatigue.
- Average – from 2 to 5 diopters. As a rule, at this stage, a person sees well into the distance, but cannot examine in detail nearby objects.
- High – more than 5 diopters. Vision deteriorates both near and far.
Age hyperopia (or presbyopia) differs separately. This type of disease usually occurs in people aged 45-50 years due to age-related changes in the structure of the eye. The fact is that with age, the lens loses its elasticity and cannot change its shape (accommodation) in the same way as before in order to properly refract light onto the retina. Therefore, age hyperopia is one of the most common visual defects.
TREATMENT OF FARE
In the treatment of farsightedness, the same methods are mainly used as for the correction of myopia. The basic principle of treatment is the restoration of the refractive system of the eye. That is, the impact is either on the cornea or on the lens.
- In the case of farsightedness up to 6 diopters, LASIK is used for the treatment of hyperopia, such as LASIK. With the help of a laser, the ophthalmic surgeon acts on the cornea of the eye, giving it a form so that the light, refracted through it, hits the lens and focuses right in the central part of the retina. The usual operation lasts no more than 10-15 minutes, and the direct effect of the laser beam on the eye is no more than 40 seconds. Vision begins to recover within a few hours after surgery. On the same day, the patient can already return home, following a doctor’s prescription within a month. After that, all restrictions are removed.
- Hyperfakia. This is a room inside the eye in front of the lens of a special ultra-thin lens, which is allowed to achieve the correct refraction of light rays. The lens turns out here its own “glasses”, which, however, are much more convenient than ordinary glasses with farsightedness. This type of surgery is used for hyperopia over 6 diopters or for contraindications to laser vision correction.
IMPORTANT! Do not delay the treatment of hyperopia. In the early stages, it is much easier to stop the progression of the disease and treat it than in advanced cases. Skilled ophthalmosurgeons of the Vizus-1 clinic are always happy to conduct a diagnostic examination of your eyes and select the desired treatment for you.
Glaucoma is one of the most dangerous eye diseases, which in advanced cases leads to complete and irreversible loss of vision. Glaucoma is characterized by increased eye pressure, as a result of which the optic nerve is subjected to heavy loads and gradually atrophies. Although glaucoma is more common in older people, no one is immune from this disease. It is especially worth being vigilant to people who have glaucoma patients in the family, as it is often inherited.
The reasons for the increased intraocular pressure have not yet been fully disclosed in ophthalmology. It is known that the pressure is created by intraocular fluid. In the healthy eye is constantly produced fluid that nourishes the structure of the eye, not supplied with blood vessels. There is a constant circulation of this fluid. It is derived from the eye through special channels. With glaucoma, the outflow of intraocular fluid is hampered, it accumulates in the eye and creates increased pressure.
There are 2 types of glaucoma:
- open-angle glaucoma. In this case, the outflow of intraocular fluid occurs, but not to the extent that it is produced by the eye. The reason is that the outgoing channels are overgrown, resulting in a decrease in their wired capacity. And the fluid gradually accumulates, and the pressure slowly grows.
- angle-closure glaucoma. In case of angle-closure glaucoma, the outflow of ophthalmic fluid stops completely. This is mainly due to the fact that the iris blocks access to the excretory channels. As a result, fluid builds up very quickly and pressure almost instantly jumps. This form of glaucoma is characterized by acute attacks that can cause severe damage to the optic nerve in a short period of time.
Unfortunately, there has not yet been invented a method that would be able to completely cure glaucoma. All methods of treatment, as a rule, reduce the pressure in the eye, however, the risk of a repeated increase in pressure remains, therefore, a patient with glaucoma must be constantly monitored by an ophthalmologist.
- Conservative (drip) treatment methods. This is the main method of treating Gluacoma, which is prescribed to patients. A drip treatment for a person with glaucoma should always be obtained and strictly follow the schedule of instillation. In some cases, conservative treatment of glaucoma is enough to keep intraocular pressure at a normal level. But it often happens that drip treatment is not enough. Then other treatments are added.
- Laser treatment for glaucoma. The laser beam acts on the channels leading to the ocular fluid, as if cleaning them. The drainage system of the eye for a certain period returns to normal and the normal outflow of fluid from the eye is restored again. Such operations are safe, painless and performed quickly on an outpatient basis. Laser operations for the treatment of glaucoma are usually prescribed in the initial stages of the disease when the intraocular pressure is not too high, and in acute attacks of glaucoma.
- Surgical treatment of glaucoma. At the moment it is the most progressive and effective method of treating glaucoma. When trabeculectomy creates new ways for the outflow of intraocular fluid under the conjunctiva. With non-penetrating deep sclerectomy, outflow paths are created in the peripheral part of the cornea, without interfering with the internal structure of the eye, which makes this operation safe for the patient and very less traumatic. The operation itself usually lasts 10-15 minutes and takes place under local drip anesthesia.
Recent developments in the treatment of glaucoma allowed to achieve extraordinary success in combating this disease. After surgery, IOP re-rises only in 2% of patients. However, even after surgery, you should be regularly examined by an ophthalmologist.
Ophthalmic surgeons of the Vizus-1 center will conduct a complete eye examination for you, measure the visual fields on the latest electronic equipment and accurately determine the condition of the optic nerve. After which they will be able to prescribe the necessary method of treatment.
The lens of the eye is a very important element. In its healthy state, the lens performs 2 basic functions, without which normal vision is impossible: it is the refraction of light rays on the retina and accommodation (changing the shape to get a clear image). However, with age, the elasticity of the lens decreases, and in some cases its transparency.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens, as a result of which the rays of light stop refracting freely through it and a person begins to see blurred images. And with the complete clouding of the lens of the eye completely ceases to see.
Most often, cataracts are age-related changes of the lens. Therefore, it occurs mainly in the elderly. The first signs of cataracts may appear after 35-40 years. But there are also other forms of cataracts: congenital, traumatic, radiation, etc.
In the initial stages, a cataract is manifested in a slight deterioration in vision. Before lazy sometimes blurry spots, strokes, ghosting of images may appear. Also, the eyes may begin to react sharply to light.
As the disease progresses, the color of the pupil changes from black to white.
The earlier a cataract is detected, the less damage it will bring to the eye. Cataract cure is possible only by surgery:
- Microsurgical method. This is the most progressive and effective way to treat cataracts, which allows you to completely forget about this disease. During cataract phacoemulsification, the diseased lens is replaced with a high-tech lens, which is also called an artificial lens. At the same time, modern lenses are not inferior to the natural lens of the eye. They completely restore sight to the person. In addition, such lenses can be chosen in such a way that they compensate for myopia or hyperopia. Therefore, a person after phacoemulsification may well see the world as well as he has never seen before.
The operation itself is performed painlessly and quickly (10-15 minutes), under local drip anesthesia, which allows patients of any age to perform this operation.
And remember that you should not delay with the treatment of cataracts. The sooner you contact a qualified ophthalmosurgeon of the Vizus-1 clinic, the sooner you can return to a comfortable lifestyle with healthy eyesight.
The cornea is the outer part of the eye that covers the iris. The main function of the cornea is the correct refraction of light, so that a clear image falls on the retina, as well as to some extent protect the eye from external influences. However, the boundary position of the cornea between the external environment and the internal environment of the eye contributes to the fact that it is exposed to frequent influences both outside and inside. As a result of adverse effects, the cornea can be deformed, burns, erosion can appear on it, or it can become thinner. According to statistics, about a quarter of patients ophthalmologists at least once treated with diseases of the cornea.
Cornea diseases, depending on the reasons, are divided into:
- Reshaping and anomalies of the cornea. These are genetically determined cornea changes. Such as keratoconus and keratoglobus (change in the shape of the cornea, at which it is stretched in length), congenital opacities of the cornea, microcornus and macrocorny (change in the diameter of the cornea).
- Corneal dystrophy. There are both congenital and acquired corneal dystrophies. Corneal dystrophy can occur due to injuries, burns, glaucoma, and a lack of tear fluid.
- Corneal inflammation. May be caused by external infection or internal processes in the body.
- Corneal damage. These are physical damage to the cornea as a result of injuries, burns, penetration of foreign objects, etc.
A feature of corneal diseases is that they are not treated by conservative methods. If the vision has fallen as a result of, for example, corneal dystrophy, then it cannot be corrected by selecting glasses or contact lenses. And some corneal diseases, such as keratoconus, can lead to complete loss of vision in advanced cases.
TREATMENT OF CARTNEY DISEASES
Most corneal diseases are treated surgically. The most effective way to restore the cornea is keratoplasty.
- Keratoplasty is the restoration of the shape and function of the cornea. During keratoplasty, the ophthalmic surgeon uses a special corneal implant to restore damaged areas or to “complete” the cornea to the correct shape, which guarantees the return of vision. This operation is used for corneal damage, opacities, as well as with a strong degree of keratoconus.
- Cross-linking is a relatively new method of treating keratoconus, in which corneal tissue is strengthened with the help of special drops and parallel effects of the Seiler lamp, which promotes the formation of new chemical bonds between the corneal tissue molecules. It is used in the initial stages of keratoconus.
- Implantation of stromal rings. This operation is used in the initial stages of the appearance of keratoconus. Special biomaterial rings are implanted into the cornea, which form a kind of skeleton and restore the correct shape of the cornea.
Only an experienced ophthalmologist after a diagnostic examination of the eye can select the required treatment method. Surgical treatment of the cornea is considered to be a rather complicated method of eye microsurgery; therefore, it is important that it be performed only by highly skilled ophthalmic surgeons. Such as Vizus-1 specialists, who have vast experience behind them and a large number of successfully performed operations.
Pathology of the retina
The retina is an ultra-thin inner lining of the eye consisting of neural cells. It provides the perception of objects in the surrounding space by means of rays of light refracted on it and transmits visual images of objects to the human brain.
Retinal diseases are the most dangerous of all eye diseases, since atrophied nervous tissue can no longer be restored, leading to irreversible loss of vision.
The most common diseases of the retina are:
- Retinal dystrophy;
- Retinal disinsertion;
- Inflammatory diseases of the retina (as a result of external and internal infections);
- Retinal hemorrhage.
As a rule, retinal pathologies occur as secondary effects of other common diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, head and eye injuries, and some infections. Also at risk are people with myopia, pregnant women and the elderly.
Retinal dystrophy is most common. Especially this disease is typical for people with high and medium degree of myopia. The fact is that with myopia the shape of the eye changes, as a result of which the retina stretches and its blood supply is disturbed. Dystrophy occurs, which can lead to retinal detachment, if it is not cured in time.
Retinal detachment is a much more serious disease when the retina detaches from the back wall of the eye, through which its blood supply occurs. If in this case an urgent operation is not performed within a few days, then the person risks being left without sight.
TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGY OF THE RETRACT
Retinal treatments will vary according to the specific disease:
- Laser coagulation of the retina. It is used for various retinal dystrophies. This method is based on the fact that the laser beam with a high temperature provokes splicing of the retina and the posterior wall of the eye, which prevents its detachment.
- Intravitreal administration of drugs. This method is used for age-related macular degeneration of the retina. In this disease, age-related changes occur in the structure of the eye, which is accompanied by an abnormal increase in the number of blood vessels that begin to affect the retina, leading to loss of vision. Until recently, there was no effective medication for this disease. However, recent discoveries in ophthalmology have made it possible to cure this serious disease, not only stopping the growth of abnormal blood vessels, but also restoring lost vision. Treatment is made by administering the drug Lucentis.
- Vitrectomy. Perhaps this is the most difficult operation in modern ophthalmology. It is used in cases of retinal detachment, when the patient needs urgent help and the bill goes to the clock. Ophthalmic surgeon using microsurgery equipment removes blood clots from under the retina and introduces a special compound into the vitreous body so that it acquires the desired shape. The vitreous body presses the exfoliated retina to the back of the eye to restore its blood supply.